True Nutrition's Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate (AAKG) is a 2:1 mixture of the amino acid arginine and alpha-ketoglutarate.
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is the deaminated carbon skeleton (missing the amino group) of the amino acids glutamic acid (aka glutamate) and glutamine. Alpha-ketoglutarate is also an intermediate in the Kreb's cycle, a set of metabolic processes involved in energy (ATP) production from fats and carbohydrates, as well as amino acid metabolism. As such, AKG is an important metabolic link between cellular energy production and protein metabolism.
In states of high protein intake or simply during normal protein turnover, AKG receives the amino (nitrogen containing) groups from amino acids, forming glutamate, which then contributes to the urea cycle (where urea is produced and eventually lost in the urine). AKG can also be used in transamination reactions to generate arginine (as well as proline and histidine)(1). Mixing AKG with arginine would therefore favor less deamination of arginine, preserving it and prolonging its effects(2).
In disease states of impaired protein metabolism such as dialysis, supplementing with AKG by itself positively affects amino acid handling(2). AKG also improves intestinal health(3) (perhaps by assisting in glutamine metabolism, which fuels the immune system of the gut(4)), improves immune function during physiological trauma (e.g., burns) and positively affects protein turnover in a malnourished or hypocaloric (negative caloric balance) state(3).
In a recent study performed in Richard Kreider's lab(5), 4 gram doses of AAKG were found to be safe and well-tolerated, and significantly elevated blood levels of arginine as expected. After 8 weeks of resistance training (4 sessions / week), those taking AAKG (4 g; 3 times daily) improved bench press strength and performance during an all-out 30 second cycling effort compared to those who took a placebo instead. However, no differences in body composition were noted between groups during the two month study(5).
AAKG would be taken on an empty stomach (or at the beginning of meals), spread throughout the day at several doses of approximately 4 grams (depending on body size). During periods of weight loss, AAKG may help prevent muscle loss and could be used with supplements such as the Branch Chain Amino Acids, especially leucine, supplemental glutamine, and some form of creatine. When undergoing heavy or high overload training or when gastrointestinal stress is high (e.g., due to high caloric intake), AAKG may help with protein balance and digestive and absorptive function, and could be taken in conjunction with with Betaine HCL and/or protease. See also the supplement uses of arginine.
As a dietary supplement, take 1 Serving 1-3 times daily.
Arginine Alpha Ketogluterate.
Packaged in heat-sealed foil pouches.
If you are currently pregnant or nursing, consult a physician prior to use. Keep out of the reach of children.
Although this product may not contain one or all of the following, this product is manufactured in a facility that handles milk, soy, egg, peanut, nut, tree, fish, crustaceans/shellfish, and wheat products.
Use the table below to approximate the gram equivalent weight for a given level measuring spoon (US Standard). Please note that accurate dosing should only be done with a recommended calibrated scale.
|Measuring Spoon (level) ||g ||mg |
|90cc Scoop ||41.6 ||41556 |
|70cc Scoop ||32.3 ||32321 |
|29.6cc Scoop ||13.7 ||13667 |
|25cc Scoop ||11.5 ||11543 |
|Tablespoon ||6.8 ||6829 |
|10cc Scoop ||4.6 ||4617 |
|½ Tablespoon ||3.4 ||3415 |
|Teaspoon ||2.3 ||2276 |
|½ Teaspoon ||1.1 ||1138 |
|1.7cc Scoop ||0.8 ||785 |
|¼ Teaspoon ||0.6 ||569 |
|1/8 Teaspoon ||0.3 ||285 |
|1/16 Teaspoon ||0.1 ||142 |
|1/32 Teaspoon ||0.1 ||71 |
DISCLAIMER: The above description is provided for information only and does not constitute medical advice. Please consult your physician or the appropriately licensed professional before engaging in a program of exercise or nutritional supplementation. No information in this site has been reviewed by the FDA. No product is intended to treat, diagnose, or cure any disease.
1. Garrett, R.H. and C.M. Grisham, Biochemistry. 1995, Orlando: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 1100.
2. Riedel, E., et al., Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to malnourished hemodialysis patients improves plasma arginine concentrations. Miner Electrolyte Metab, 1996. 22(1-3): p. 119-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=8676801
3. Cynober, L.A., The use of alpha-ketoglutarate salts in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 1999. 2(1): p. 33-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=10453328
4. Antonio, J. and C. Street, Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes. Can J Appl Physiol, 1999. 24(1): p. 1-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9916176
5. Campbell, B., et al., Pharmacokinetics, safety, and effects on exercise performance of l-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate in trained adult men. Nutrition, 2006. 22(9): p. 872-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=16928472